The Americas Links

* Canada * United States * Mexico and the Caribbean * Central and South America


 Includes gardens, cultural landscapes, national and city parks, botanical gardens, cemeteries



Cultivating Canadian Gardens – a Library and Archives of Canada exhibit

Landscape historian, Pleasance Crawford‘s list of publications

World Heritage papers: Cultural Landscapes: The Challenges of Conservation

An approach to Aboriginal cultural landscapes, Parks Canada Canada’s Cultural Landscapes

Canada’s Cultural Landscapes

Newfoundland and Labrador

Landscape, Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador

Nova Scotia

Gardens of the Fortress of Louisbourg, 1, 2, 3

Halifax Public Gardens, Halifax, 1, 2, 3

Historic gardens of Annapolis Royal


Le Jardin de Metis

William Lyon Mackenzie King Estate

Le Domaine Joly-De Lotbinière, in French only

La Seigneurie des Aulnaies, Saint-Roch-des-Aulnaies, in French only

Joan of Arc Gardens, Plains of Abraham, Quebec

Parc du Domaine-Howard, Sherbrooke

Le parc du Bois-de-Coulonge, Sillery, Quebec, 1, 2, 3

Le domaine Cataraqui, Sillery, Quebec, in French only

La Maison Henry-Stuart

The Chateau Ramezay Museum and Gardens, Montreal, 1, 2, 3

Garden styles of New France

Sulpician Gardens, Montreal, 1, 2

Morgan Arboretum, Montreal

Montreal Botanical Garden, Montreal, 1, 2

Jardin Daniel A. Séguin, Saint-Hyacinthe, Montréal, in French only

Mont Royal Cemetery, Montreal, 1, 2

The Dream of ‘la ville fleurie’: A Non-Linear History and Pragmatic Criticism of Public Gardens in Montreal, by Erin Despard. Ph.D. thesis. Montréal: Concordia University, 2013.

Maison et Jardins Chénier-Sauvé, Vieux Saint-Eustache, in French only

Plains of Abraham, Quebec City, cultural landscape, 1, 2, 3

Gérald Domon, and Andre Bouchard. “The landscape history of Godmanchester (Quebec, Canada): two centuries of shifting relationships between anthropic and biophysical factors.” Landscape Ecology (2007).


Maplelawn Gardens, Ottawa, 1, 2, 3

Rideau Hall, Ottawa, the Governor General’s residence, 1, 2, 3

Electronic Atlas of a Cultural Landscape: Carleton University [Ottawa, Ontario] and Environs

Spadina House and gardens, Toronto

Casa Loma, Toronto

Wychwood Park, Toronto

Jesse Ashbridge House, Toronto

Allan Gardens, Toronto, 1, 2

Allan Gardens Conservatory [Toronto], history

Toronto Botanical Garden/Edwards Garden, Toronto, 1, 2

Heritage Gardens, Stanhope Museum, Haliburton

Royal Botanical Gardens, Hamilton, Ontario

Marcel Bénéteau, “Jesuit Pear Trees,” Encyclopedia of French Cultural Heritage in North America, 2007

Historic Places Kitchener: Identifying Our Cultural Heritage Landscapes

Parkwood, Oshawa, 1, 2, 3

Bellevue House National Historic Site and historic gardens, home of Sir John A. Macdonald, Kingston, 1, 2, 3

Whitehern Historic House and Garden, Hamilton, 1, 2

Ontario’s Heritage Gardens

Chiefswood National Historic Site of Canada, Six Nations Grand River Reserve

Cultural Landscapes in Canada’s Capital Region, National Capital Commission

Whitefeather Forest: An Indigenous Cultural Landscape of the Pikangikum people


International Peace Garden, on the border between Manitoba, Canada and North Dakota, USA

Assiniboine Park and Zoo, Winnipeg, 1, 2, 3


Honeywood Nursery (Dr. A.J. Porter) Heritage Nursery, Parkside, 1, 2

Wascana Centre, Regina


Devonian Botanic Garden, Edmonton, 1, 2

Kurimoto Japanese Garden, University of Alberta, Devonian Botanic Garden

Nikka Yuko Japanese Garden, Lethbridge, 1, 2

Reader Rock Garden, Calgary, 1, 2, 3

Calgary parks, history

Coldstream Ranch orchards

British Columbia

Butchart Gardens, Victoria, 1, 2, 3

Arts and Crafts Movement gardens in Victoria

Hatley Park, Victoria, 1, 2, 3

Milner Gardens and Woodland, Malaspina University

Abkhazi Garden, Victoria

University of British Columbia, Nitobe Memorial Garden, 1, 2

British Columbia gardens in general – Beyond Dried Flowers: Preserving Garden History by Elizabeth Hyde

Secwepemc Ethnobotanical Gardens, Kamloops

VanDusen Botanical Garden, Vancouver

University of British Columbia Botanical Garden, Vancouver

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Classical Chinese Garden and Park, Vancouver, 1, 2

Stanley Park, Vancouver, 1, 2

Nanaimo historic landscapes

Redefining the Cultural Landscape in British Columbia: Huu-ay-aht Youth Visions for a Post-Treaty Era in Nuu-chah-nulth Territory, by Vanessa Sloan Morgan, Heather Castleden, Huu-ay-aht First Nation c/o Chief Councilor Jeff Cook

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Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes

Protecting Cultural Landscapes, National Park Service

History of amusement parks, cultural landscape, 1, 2

Early American Gardens & Cultural Landscapes

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California Native Plantsman: UC Berkeley Botanical Garden, Tilden Botanic Garden: oral history transcript, by Roderick, Wayne. UC Berkeley Botanical Garden, Tilden Botanic Garden, n.d.

Landscape Architecture: The Profession in California, 1935-1940, by Eckbo, Garrett. 1993. (transcript)

Geraldine Knight Scott, 1904-1989, A woman in Landscape Architecture in California, 1926-1989: oral history transcript. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California, ca. 1990.

Thomas Church, landscape architect: oral history transcript and related material, 1975-1978. [Bancroft, California]: Bancroft Library, Regional Oral History Office, 2006. Vol. I; Vol. II.

History of the Landscape Architecture Firm of Hare and Hare [Kansas City, Missouri], 1, 2, 3, 4

Biographical Information on Landscape Architects, Environmental Design Library, Univ. of Berkeley

Luther Burbank Home and Gardens

George Washington Carver, American plant hybridist, 1, 2

Ellen Biddle Shipman, American landscape architect, 1, 2, 3, 4

Charles van Ravenswaay, 1, 2, 3, 4

Frederick Law Olmsted

Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site

The Olmsted Legacy

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Bellingrath Gardens, Theodore

Fort Toulouse – Jackson Park, Wetumpka, 1, 2


Canyon De Chelly, Chinie, cultural landscape

Tucson Botanical Gardens, Tuscon


History of Washington State Park, Washington


Hannah Carter Japanese Garden, Los Angeles

Fioli Gardens, Woodside

Balboa Park history, San Diego, 1, 2, 3

Hearst Castle Gardens, San Simeon

Baron Makoto Hagiwara, Japanese Tea Garden, San Francisco, 1, 2, 3

Dunsmuir Estate, Oakland, 1, 2, 3

Barron Park, San Francisco

Golden Gate Park, San Francisco

Save our Heritage Organization, San Diego


Bartlett Arboretum at the University of Connecticut, Stamford, 1, 2

Bushnell Park, Hartford, 1, 2

Cedar Hill Cemetery, Hartford, 1, 2


Atlanta History Center – Cherokee Garden Library

Atlanta garden history

Atlanta Botanical Garden

Historic Druid Hills, Atlanta, laid out in 1893 by Frederick Law Olmsted


Canoe Plants of Hawaii

Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden, Papaikou


Chicago Botanical Garden

The City in a Garden: A Photographic History of Chicago’s Parks by Julia Sniderman Bachrach


Places of repose: Early Cemeteries of Wichita


Ashland Garden, Kentucky, the Henry Clay estate

Cave Hill National Cemetery, Louisville, 1, 2

Listing of Kentucky gardens


McLaughlin Garden, Paris

Longfellow Garden, 1, 2


Bay Plain and Piedmont: landscape history of the Chesapeake Heartland from 1.3 billion years ago to 2000


Heirloom gardening at Old Sturbridge Village

Hancock Shaker Village Farm and Gardens

Botanic Garden of Smith College, 1, 2

Arnold Arboretum, Boston

Mount Auburn Cemetery, Boston, 1, 2


Sleeping Bear Dunes National Park, cultural landscape


Grand Portage National Monument and gardens


Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis

Walnut Grove Cemetery, Boonville

New Jersey

Cross Estate Gardens, Bernardsville, 1, 2, 3, 4

New Jersey historic gardens

New Mexico

Pueblo cultural landscapes

New York

Cornell University Botanic Gardens, Ithaca

Oakwood Cemetery, Troy, 1, 2

Olmsted parks in Buffalo, 1, 2, 3

George Eastman’s gardens, Rochester, 1, 2

Wave Hill

Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York City

New York Botanical Garden, New York City

Woodlawn Cemetery, New York City, 1, 2

Central Park, New York City, designed by Frederick Olmstead, 1, 2, 3, 4

Prospect Park, New York, 1, 2

North Carolina

Reynolda Gardens, Winston-Salem, 1, 2

Chinqua Penn Plantation gardens, Reidsville

Biltmore Estate gardens, Asheville

Tryon Palace Gardens, New Bern, 1, 2


Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens, Akron, 1, 2

Woodlawn Cemetery, Toledo


Dunn Gardens, Seattle, designed by the Olmsted Brothers firm, 1, 2

Elk Rock Gardens of the Bishop’s Close, Dunthorpe

Deepwood Estate Museum and Gardens, Salem, Oregon, designed by the Northwest’s first female landscape architecture firm, Lord & Schryver, 1, 2, 3, 4

Lan Su Chinese garden, Portland

Rae Selling Berry Seed Bank & Plant Conservation Program at the Portland State University, Portland (formerly Berry Botanical Garden), 1, 2

Oregon Caves National Monument, cultural landscape

The Historic Columbia River Gorge (cultural landscape), Oregon, 1, 2

Olmsted parks, Seattle, 1, 2, 3


The Bartram gardens, Philadelphia

Tyler Arboretum, Media

Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square, 1, 2, 3, 4

The Benjamin Franklin Parkway: Rehabilitating an Historic Urban Designed Landscape (cultural landscape), Philadelphia

Greenwood Cemetery, Phildelphia, 1, 2; History and Development of Greenwood Cemetery, Phildelphia by Grant Peckenschneider

Historic Homewood Cemetery, Pittsburgh, 1, 2

Rhode Island

Tiverton Land Trust, Tiverton, a cultural landscape

South Carolina

Middleton Gardens, Charleston, 1, 2, 3


The Pavilion Gardens, University of Virginia — Thomas Jefferson’s gardens, 1, 2

The University of Virginia’s gardens and yards in the 19th century, Lydia Mattice Brandt

Monticello gardens,Thomas Jefferson’s gardens, Charlottesville

Stratford Hall, Stratford, birthplace of Robert E. Lee, 1, 2

Gardens of Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, 1, 2

Mount Vernon gardens, estate of George Washington, Mount Vernon

James Madison’s Montpelier gardens, Orange, 1, 2


Kubota Garden, Seattle, 1, 2, 3

Lakewold Gardens, Lakewold, 1, 2

Ohme Gardens, Wenatchee, 1, 2

Washington State Parks

Washington, D.C.

National Arboretum


Boerner Botanical Garden, Milwaukee

Heirloom Gardens, Wisconsin

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Toluca’s Cosmovitral-Jardin Botanico

Agave Landscape and Ancient Industrial Facilities of Tequila, cultural landscape

Chinampas, the floating gardens of Mexico

Oaxaca’s Ethnobotanical Garden by Jeff Spurrier

Jardin Botanico, Cancun

Gardens of Sir Edward James ‘Las Pozas’ in Xilitla, 1, 2, 3


Bermuda gardens

Andromeda Gardens, Barbados

Diamond Falls Botanical Garden, St. Lucia

Mamiku Gardens, St. Lucia

The Botanical Gardens of Nevis, Nevis, West Indies

Dominica Botanic Gardens, Dominica

St. Peter Great House and Botanical Gardens, St. Thomas

St. George Village Botanical Gardens, St. Croix

Castelton Botanical Garden, Jamaica

Le Jardin de Balata, Martinique

Le Jardin Botanique de Deshaie, Guadeloupe

El Jardín Botánico y Cultural de Cagua, Puerto Rico

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Buenos Aires Botanical Garden, Buenos Aires

The Carlos Thays Botanical Garden, Buenos Aires, 1, 2

Parque Tres de Febrero, Buenos Aires

Museo Botanico Chirau Mita, La Puntilo, Chilecito


Parque Burle Marx, Sao Paulo

Jardim Botânico de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, 1

Jardim da Luz, Sao Paulo

Musa Jardim Botanico, Manaus

Botanical Garden, Inhotim


National Botanical Gardens, Santiago, 1, 2, 3


Parks and gardens in Lima


Belize Spice Farm and Botanical Garden, Toledo district


Bogota Botanical Garden, Bogota, 1, 2

Quindío Botanical Garden, Quindio

Costa Rica

Iglesia de San Rafael, Zarcero

Robert & Catherine Wilson Botanical Garden, San Vito, 1, 2

Lankester Botanic Gardens, Cartago, 1, 2

La Paz Waterfall Gardens, Alajuela, 1, 2


Sorora Orchidarium, Viñales, 1, 2

National Botanical Garden, Havana

Jardíns de los Helechos, Santiago

Jardín Botánico, Las Tunas

Dominican Republic

National Botanic Gardens


El Cementerio de Tulcán

El Jardín Botánico Atocha-La Liria


Finca Dracula, Cerro Punta, 1, 2